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Growth Inhibition and Differentiation of HT-29 Cells in vitro by Inositol Hexaphosphate (Phytic Acid)
Author(s): Sakamoto K, Venkatraman G, Shamsuddin AM
Source: Carcinogenesis. 1993; l4(9):l815-1819.
Inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 or phytic acid) has been shown to have antineoplastic action in in vivo models of colon carcinogenesis. We therefore investigated its effect on proliferation and differentiation of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29 in vitro. Proliferation was evaluated by neutral red incorporation assay, and differentiation was assessed by expression of the markers, cytokeratin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and §-D-galactose-[1->3]-N-acetyl-galactosamine (Gal-GalNAc). InsP6 in the culture media (0.66-10 mM} inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.001), while inositol or inositol hexasulfate used as controls or media without InsP6 did not show any suppressive effect. The expression of the tumor marker, Gal-GalNac, was augmented (100.7% increase) by low dose (0.66 mM) of InsP6 but was subsequently suppressed with higher concentrations of InsP6. The expression of cytokeratin and CEA were both augmented by either InsP6 or inositol at all concentrations tested, although the degree of augmentation was milder with inositol than with InsP6. The combination of InsP6 and inositol (both 0.66 mm) resulted in augmentation (P < 0.001) of cytokeratin expression, while that of CEA remained unchanged. The inhibitory effect of InsP6 on cell proliferation was not altered by combination with additional inositol at any concentrations tested. Our results show that InsP6 inhibits cell proliferation and concomitantly increases differentiation and is therefore a candidate chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for human large intestinal cancer.
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